Aim
To calculate and verify Hybrid parameters of twoport network.
Apparatus
Breadboard, Batteries or DC regulated power supply, Resistors, Digital multimeter, Connecting wires, Alligator clips.
Theory
hParameters of Two Port Network are also called hybrid parameters. These parameters are very useful in constructing models for transistors.
These parameters are obtained by expressing voltage at input port and the current at output port in terms of the current at the input port and the voltage at the output port.
We will get the following set of two equations by considering the variables V_{1} & I_{2} as dependent and I_{1} & V_{2} as independent.
In equation form, above relations can be written as,
V_{1}=h_{11}I_{1}+h_{12}V_{2} …(1)
I_{2}=h_{21}I_{1}+h_{22}V_{2} …(2)
The coefficients of independent variables, I_{1} and V_{2}, are called as hparameters.
In matrix form the above equations can be written as,
Assuming the short circuit condition at the output terminal, we get V_{2} = 0
Now putting V_{2} = 0 in (1), we get
V_{1} = h_{11}I_{1}
∴h_{11} = (V_{1} / I_{1})
Similarly, putting V_{2} = 0 in (2), we get
I_{2} = h_{21}I_{1}
∴ h_{21} = (I_{2} / I_{1})
Again, assuming input port of the twoport network to be open circuited, the input voltage will be zero i.e. I_{1} = 0
Now putting I_{1} = 0 in (1), we get
V_{1} = h_{12}V_{2}
∴ h_{12} = (V_{1} / V_{2})
Similarly putting I_{1} = 0 in (3), we get
I_{2} = h_{22}V_{2}
∴ h_{22} = (I_{2} / V_{2})
Thus, there are four h parameter for a twoport or fourterminal network. Their values are tabulated below.
h_{11}  (V_{1} / I_{1})  Condition: Output port of the twoport network is short circuited i.e. V_{2} = 0 
h_{21}  (I_{2} / I_{1})  
h_{12}  (V_{1} / V_{2})  Condition: Input port of the twoport network is open circuited i.e. I_{1} = 0 
h_{22}  (I_{2} / V_{2}) 
The individual hparameters are defined as follows,
This is called short circuit input impedance.
This is called forward short circuit current gain.
This is called reverse open circuit voltage gain.
This is called open circuit output admittance.
The parameters, h_{12} and h_{21}, do not have any units, since those are dimensionless. The units of parameters, h_{11} and h_{22}, are Ohm and Mho respectively.
All above parameters are having different units such as ohm for short circuit impedance and mho for open circuit output admittance, the name of the parameter is hybrid parameter.
Circuit Diagram
[Chose any resistor between 200Ω to 2KΩ and DC supply beween 5V to 12V]
Procedure
 Connect the circuit as shown in figure 2.
 First short the output port (port 2) and supply 10V to input port (port 1). Measure output current and input current using multimeter.
 Secondly, open circuit input port and supply 5V to output port. Measure input and output voltages and output current using multimeter.
 Calculate the values of hparameters using respective formulas (Shown in calculation section).
 Switch ‘OFF’ the supply after taking the readings.
Precautions
 Before circuit connection working condition of all the components must be checked.
 All the connection should be tight.
 Ammeter must be connected in series while voltmeter must be connected in parallel to the components (resistors).
 The electrical current should not flow the circuit for long time, otherwise its temperature will increase and the result will be affected.
Observation table
When output port is short circuited  When input port is open circuited  
V_{1}  I_{1}  I_{2}  V_{1}  V_{2}  I_{2} 






Calculations
For Practical Values:
(a) When output is short circuited i.e. V_{2} = 0
h_{11} = V_{1} / I_{1} = ___ Ω
h_{21} = I_{2} / I_{1 }= ___
(b) When input is open circuited i.e. I_{1} = 0
h_{12} = V_{1} / V_{2 }= ___
h_{22} = I_{2} / V_{2 }= ___ mho
For Theoretical Values:
[Use any method to calculate hparameters]
h_{11} = ____ Ω
h_{21} = ____
h_{12} = ____
h_{22} = ____mho
Result
Parameter→  h_{11}  h_{12}  h_{21}  h_{22} 
Theoretical  
Practical 
Conclusion
Calculated and practical values of hparameters are found to be nearly equal hence hparameters are verified.
Video Tutorial on HParameters
For Calculation to Verify Hybrid parameters of twoport network
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