Click on the link for the Instrumentation notes it includes mainly two units as (1)Transducers and Sensors and (2)Industrial measurements. Some more topics will be covered soon or later. You can also demand as per need.

Sensors and Transducers,

Transducer and Its Classification,
Selection Criteria of Transducer ,
LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transformer,
Strain Gauge ,
Piezoelectric Transducer ,
Hall Effect Transducer,
Resistance Temperature Detectors or Resistance thermometer ,
Photoelectric Transducers ,
Light Sensors or Photosensors ,
Electrical Telemetry | Telemetry System,
Signal Conditioning ,
Measurement of vibration,
Electrical telemetry,
Thickness measurement,
Humidity measurement,
Thermal conductivity,
Industrial computerized tomography,
Smoke and fire detection,
level measurement
Burglar alarm,
Object counter,
sound level meter,
VAW meter,
Recorder X- Y plotters and its applications,
Optical oscillograph.

Different forms of construction of thermistors


Thermistors (construction of thermal resistor) are semiconductors which behave as resistors with a high negative temperature coefficient of resistance. Thermistor word derived from Thermal resistor. It became available in early 1960’s. They are based on oxides of semiconductors which has high temperature coefficients (mostly NTC) and have high resistance. Construction of Thermistor Thermistors are composed

Thermistors Read More »

Instrumentation, Sensors and transducers, Industrial measurement,

Sensors and Transducers

Sensors and transducers are crucial in instrumenting an engineering system. Sensors may be used in an engineering system for a variety of purposes. A measuring device passes through two main stages while measuring a signal. First, the measurand is felt or sensed by the sensing element. Then, the sensed signal is transduced (or converted) into

Sensors and Transducers Read More »

Construction of thermocouple,


When two metals having different work functions are placed together, a voltage is generated at the junction which is nearly proportional to the temperature. This junction is called a thermocouple. Working Principle of Thermocouple Thomas Seebeck discovered in 1821 that when two dissimilar metals were in contact, a voltage was generated where the voltage was

Thermocouple Read More »

Resistance thermometer, resistance temperature detector, RTD, Resistance temperature detectors,

Resistance Temperature Detectors or Resistance thermometer

Resistance temperature detectors, or resistance thermometers, employ a sensitive element of extremely pure platinum, copper or nickel wire that provides a definite resistance value at each temperature within its range. Thermoresistive Effect The relationship between temperature and resistance of conductors in the temperature range near 0°C can be calculated from the equation where Rt =

Resistance Temperature Detectors or Resistance thermometer Read More »

construction or structure of photoconductive transducer, Light dependent resistor, Photoelectric transducers,

Photoelectric Transducers

The various photoelectric transducers that convert light energy into electrical energy are Photoemissive transducer, Photovoltaic transducer, Photoconductive transducer. Photoemissive Transducers The properties of a photoemissive cell or phototube are used in photoelectric transducers. The vacuum photoelectric cell consists of a curved sheet of thin metal with its concave surface coated with a photoemissive material, which

Photoelectric Transducers Read More »

working of Hall effect transducer, hall effect sensor,

Hall Effect Transducer

The Hall effect element is a type of transducer used for measuring the magnetic field by converting it into an emf. The direct measurement of the magnetic field is not possible. Thus, the Hall Effect Transducer is used for indirect measurement of magnetic field. The transducer converts the magnetic field into an electric quantity which is easily measured by the analog and digital meters is called hall effect transducer. Working Principle The working principle of Hall Effect Transducer

Hall Effect Transducer Read More »

LVDT construction, Linear variable differential transformer

LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transformer

Full form of LVDT is Linear Variable Differential Transformer. Its working principle is same as Transformer (i.e. Mutual Induction Principle) and also the output across its secondary coil is in the form of differential voltage, that’s why it is named as Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is an electromechanical type inductive transducer that

LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transformer Read More »